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Portrait by SNSF (german)

About my research    (german)

About marine heatwaves (English)

Science and sailing to collect environmental data during the Vendée Globe race (English)

Unprecedented ocean warming in summer 2023

The Adaptive Emission Reduction Approach

Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon and excess heat in CMIP5 models. (a) Cumulative oceanic CO2 uptake in year 1995 (represented by mean of period 1986 to 2005) and integrated from 90°S to 90°N such that the vertical scale from 0 at 90°S to the total uptake at 90°N. (b) Same as (a), but for excess heat.


The Southern Ocean south of 30°S, occupying just 30% of the surface area, has profound influences on the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon and heat, as well as nutrient resupply from the abyss to the surface ocean. We assess the uptake, transport, and storage of oceanic anthropogenic carbon and heat over the period 1861–2005 in a new set of coupled carbon–climate Earth system models conducted for the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), with a particular focus on the Southern Ocean. Simulations show that the Southern Ocean south of 30°S, occupying 30% of global surface ocean area, accounts for 43% ± 3% (42 ± 5 Pg C) of anthropogenic CO2 and 75% ± 22% (23 ± 9 × 1022 J) of heat uptake by the ocean over the historical period. Northward transport out of the Southern Ocean is vigorous, reducing the storage to 33 ± 6 Pg anthropogenic carbon and 12 ± 7 × 1022 J heat in the region. The CMIP5 models, as a class, tend to underestimate the observation-based global anthropogenic carbon storage but simulate trends in global ocean heat storage over the last 50 years within uncertainties of observation-based estimates. CMIP5 models also suggest global and Southern Ocean CO2 uptake have been largely unaffected by recent climate variability and change. Anthropogenic carbon and heat storage show a common broad-scale pattern of change, but ocean heat storage is more structured than ocean carbon storage. The results highlight the significance of the Southern Ocean for the global climate and as the region where models differ the most in representation of anthropogenic CO2 and, in particular, heat uptake.


Link to Paper (Frölicher et al. 2015, Journal of Climate)


This paper is accompanied by a series of paper focusing on the role of the Southern Ocean for anthropogenic carbon and heat uptake (e.g. Morrison et al. 2015, Majkut et al. 2014).