Job opportunities

 I always welcome applications from skilled and motived students for Master and Bachelor thesis.

Portrait by SNSF (german)

About my research    (german)

About marine heatwaves (English)

Science and sailing to collect environmental data during the Vendée Globe race (English)

Unprecedented ocean warming in summer 2023

The Adaptive Emission Reduction Approach

Hofmann, M., 2016, Portrait: 'Tausend Jahre im Blick'. Die Zeit, 4. May 2016 [PDF]


129. Capotondi, A., R. R. Rodrigues, A. Sen Gupta, J. A. Benthuysen, C. Deser, T. L. Frölicher, N. S. Lovenduski, D. J. Amaya, N. Le Grix, T. Xu, J. Hermes, N. J. Holbrook, R. M. Koll, C. Martinez-Villalobos, S. Masina, A. Schaeffer, R. W. Schlegel, K. E. Smith, C. Wang, A global overview of marine heatwaves in a changing climate.

128. Palacios-Abrantes, J., B. S. Santos, T. L. Frölicher, G. Reyongdeau, U. R. Sumalia, C. C. C. Wabnitz, W. W. L. Cheung, Climate change drives shifts in straddling fish stocks in the world's ocean. 

127. Li, C., F. A. Burger, C. C. Raible, T. L. Frölicher, Observed regional impacts of marine heatwaves on air-sea CO2 exchange. [Link]

126. Lacroix, F., F. A. Burger, Y. Silvy, C.-F. Schleussner, T. L. Frölicher, Persistent high-latitude ocean warming and global sea level rise following temporary overshoots. [Link]

125. Santos, B., C. Wabnitz, C. Ferguson Irlanda, A. Singeo, J. Sato, G. Reydongeau, S. Lewis, K. Birkenmayer, L. Crowder, T. L. Fröilcher, C. Eastern, F. Micheli, S. Raemaekers, G. Wong-Parodi, Integrating socio-ecological indicators to inform the sustainable management of small-scale fisheries in a changing climate. 

124. Monteiro, E., Y. Silvy, D. Hohn, F. A. Burger, T. L. Frölicher, N. Mengis, FROT: A framework to comprehensively describe forcing contribution onto temperature response. 

123. Vogt, L., C. de Lavergne, J.-B. Sallée,L. Kwiatowski, T. L. Frölicher, J. T. Terhaar, Increased future ocean heat uptake constrained by Antarctic sea ice extent. 

122. Silvy, Y., T. L. Frölicher, J. Terhaar, F. Joos, F. A. Burger, F. Lacroix, M. Allen, R. Bernardello, L. Bopp, V. Brovkin, P. Cadule, M. Dix, J. P. Dunne, P. Friedlingstein, G. Georgievski, T. Hajima, S. Jenkins, M. Kawamiya, N. Y. Kiang, V. Lapin, D. Lee, P. Lerner, N. Mengis, E. A. Monteiro, D. Paynter, G. P. Peters, A. Romanou, J. Schwinger, S. Sparrow, E. Stofferjahn, J. Tjiputra, E. Tourigny, T. Ziehn, AERA-MIP: Emission pathways, remaining budgets and carbon cycle dynamics compatible with 1.5ºC and 2ºC global warming stabilization.Earth System Dynamics Discussions. [Link]

121. Jones, C. G., (62 authors incl. T. L. Frölicher). Bringing it all together: Science and modellign priorities to support international climate policy, Earth System Dynamics Discussions. [Link]

120. Morée, A., F. Lacroix, W. W. L. Cheung, T. L. Frölicher, Long-term impacts of global temperature stabilization and overshoot on marine species. 

119. Schleussner, C.-F., G. Ganti, Q. Lejeune, B. Zhu, P. Pfleiderer, R. Prütz, P. Ciais, T. L. Frölicher, S. Fuss, T. Gasser, M. J. Gidden, C. M. Kroph, R. Lamboll, R. Martyr-Koller, F. Maussion, J. W. McCaughey, M. Meinshausen, M. Mengel, Z. Nicholls, Y. Quilcaille, B. Sanderson, S. Seneviratne, J. Sillmann, C. J. Smith, E. Theokritoff, R. Warren, J. Rogelj, Overconfidence in climate overshoot. 

118. Heinze, C. and 50 co-authors (including T. L. Frölicher), Reviews and Synthesis: Abrupt ocean biogeochemical change under human-made climatic forcing - warming, acidification, and deoxygenation. Biogeosciences Discussions [Link]

117. Pfleiderer, P., T. L. Frölicher, C. M. Kropf, R. Lamboll, Q. Lejeune, T. Capela Lourenco, J. McCaughey, Y. Quilcaille, J. Rogelj, B. Sanderson, J. Sillmann, C. Smith, E. Theokritoff, C.-F. Schleussner, Reversal of the impact chain for actionable climate information. 


116. Roxy, M. K., J.S. Sarany, A. Modi, A. Anusree, W. Cai, L. Resplandy, J. Villard, T. L. Frölicher. Chapter 20: Future projection for the tropical Indian Ocean. In Ummenhofer, C.C. & R. R. Hood (Eds.), The Indian Ocean and its role in the global climate system. Elsevier, pp. 469-482. 

115. Xue, T., I. Frenger, J. Terhaar, A. E. F. Prowe, T. L. Frölicher, A. Oschlies, Southern Ocean phytoplankton under climate change: shifting balance of bottom-up and tow-down control. Biogeosciences, 21, 2473-2491. [Link]

114. Cael, B.B., F. A. Burger, S. A. Henson, G. L. Britten, T. L. Frölicher, Historical and future maximum sea surface temperatures. Science Advances, 10, eadj5569 [Link]


113. Bustamante, M. (79 authors incl. T. L. Frölicher), Ten new insights in climate science 2023/24, Global Sustainability, 1-58. [Link

112. Palazzo-Corner, S., M. Siegert, P. Ceppi, B. Fox-Kemper, T. L. Frölicher, A. Gallego-Sala, J. Haigh, C. D. Jones, R. Knutti, A. MacDougall, M. Meinshausen, Z. Nicholls, B. Sanderson, R. Séférian, M. Turetsky, R. Williams, S. Zähle, G. Hegerl, C. Koven, J.-B. Sallée, J. Rogelj, The zero emissions commitment and climate stabilization. Frontiers in Science, 1. [Link]

111. Simon, A., C. Pires, T. L. Frölicher, A. Russo, Long-term warming and interannual variability contributions to marine heatwaves in the Mediterranean. Weather and Climate Extremes, 42, 100619. [pdf]

110. Buchovecky, B., G. A. MacGilchrist, M. Bushuk, F. A. Haumann, T. L. Frölicher, N. Le Grix, J. P. Dunne, Potential predictability of the spring bloom in the Southern Ocean sea ice zone. Geophysical Research Letters, 50, e2023GL105139 [Link]

109. Santana-Falcon, Y., A. Yamamoto, A. Lenton, C. D. Jones, F. A. Burger, J. john, J. Tjiputra, J. Schwinger, M. Kawamiya, T. L. Frölicher, T. Ziehn, R. Séférian, Irreversible loss in marine ecosystem habitability after a temperature overshoot. Communications Earth & Environment, 4, 343. [Link]

108. Le Grix, N., W. W. L. Cheung, G. Reygondeau, J. Zscheischler, T. L. Frölicher, Extreme and compound ocean events are key drivers of projected low pelagic fish biomass. Global Change Biology, 29, 6478-6492. [Link]

107. Blattner, C. E., A. M. Vicedo-Cabrera, T. L. Frölicher, K. Ingold, C. C. Raible, J. Wyttenbach, How science bolstered a key European climate-change case. Nature, 621, 255-257. [pdf]

106. Singh, G. G., Z. Sajid, F. Khan, C. Mather, J. Bernhardt, T. L. Frölicher, Rethinking disaster risk for ecological risk assessment. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 11:1249567.

105. Burger, F., T. L. Frölicher, Drivers of surface ocean acidity extremes in an Earth system model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 37, e2023GB007785. [Link]

104. Joos, F., A. Hameau, T. L. Frölicher, D. B Stephenson, Anthropogenic attribution of the increasing seasonal amplitude in surface ocean pCO2. Geophysical Research Letters, 50, e2023GL102857 [Link]

103. Fredston, A. L., W. W. L. Cheung, T. L. Frölicher, Z. Kitchel, A. A. Maureaud, J. T. Thorson, A. Auber, B. Mérigot, J. Palacios-Abrantes, M. Lourdes D. Palomares, L. Pecuchet, N. Shackell, M. L. Pinsky, Marine heatwaves are not a dominant driver of change in demersal fishes. Nature, 621, 324-329 [pdf][New and Views]

102. Sen Gupta, A., J. A. Benthuysen, M. T. Burrows, K. Filbee-Dexter, T. L. Frölicher, A. J. hobday, N. J. Holbrook, P. J. Moore, E. Oliver, D. A. Smale, K. E. Smith, M. Thomsen, T. Wernberg, Marine heatwaves: definition duel heats up, Nature, 617, 465. [pdf]

101. Sutter, J., A. Jones, T. L. Frölicher, C. Wirths, T. F. Stocker, Climate intervention on high emission pathway may delay but not prevent West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Nature Climate Change, 13, 951-960. [Link]

100. Morée, A., T. M. Clarke, W. W. L. Cheung, T. L. Frölicher, Impact of deoxygenation and warming on global marine species in the 21st century. Biogeosciences, 20, 2425-2454.(chosen as EGU highlight) [Link]

99. Brewin, R. J. W., S. Sathyendranath, G. Kult, M. H. Rio, J. A. Conha, T. G. Bell, A. Bracher, C. Ficht, T. L. Frölicher et al (55 authors)., Ocean carbon from space: current status and priorities for the next decade. Earth-Sciences Reviews, 240, 104386 [Link]

98. Terhaar, J., T. L. Frölicher, F. Joos, Ocean acidification in emission-driven temperature stabilization scenarios: the role of TCRE and non-CO2 greenhouse gases. Environmental Research Letters, 18, 024033 [Link]


97. Le Grix, N., J. Zscheischler, K. B. Rodgers, R. Yamaguchi, T. L. Frölicher, Hotspots and drivers of compound marine heatwave and low net primary production extremes. Biogeosciences, 19, 5807-5835 [Link].

96. Jenkins, S., B. Sanderson, G. Peters, T. L. Frölicher, P. Friedlingstein, M. Allen, The multi-decadal response to net zero CO2 emissions and implications for emissions policy. Geophysical Research Letters, 49, e2022GL101047 [Link]

95. Terhaar, J., T. L. Frölicher, M. Aschwanden, P- Friedlingstein, F. Joos, Adaptive emission reduction approach to reach any global warming target, Nature Climate Change, 12, 1136-1142 [Link].

94. Terhaar, T. L. Frölicher, F. Joos, Observation-based estimates of the global ocean carbon sink from Earth system models. Biogesciences. 19, 4431-4457. [Link] (chosen as EGU highlight, featured as Nature highlight]

93. Burger, F., J. Terhaar, T. L. Frölicher, Compound marine heatwaves and ocean acidity extremes. Nature Communications, 13, 4722 [Link]

92. Cheung, W. W. L., J. Palacios-Abrantes, T. L. Frölicher, M. L. D. Palomares, T. Clarke, V. Lam, M. Oyinlola, D. Pauly, G. Reygondeau, R. Sumalia, L. Teh, C. C. C. Wabnitz, Rebuilding fish biomass for the world's marine ecoregion under climate change'. Global Change Biology, 28, 6254-6267. [Link]

91. Clarke, T., C. C. C. Wabnitz, T. L. Frölicher, G. Reygondeau, D. Pauly, W. W. L. Cheung, Linking observed changes in pelagic catches to temperature and oxygen in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean. Fish and Fisheries, 23, 1371-1382. [Link]

90. Vogt, L., F. A. Burger, S. M. Griffies, T. L. Frölicher, Local drivers of marine heatwaves: A global analysis with an Earth system model. Frontiers in Climate, 4:847995. [Link]

89. Clarke, T. M., T. L. Frölicher, G. Reygondeau, F. Villalobos-Rojas, C. C. C. Wabnitz, I. S. Wehrtmann, W. W. L. Cheung, Temperature and oxygen supply shape the demersal community in a tropical oxygen minimum zone. Environmental Biology and Fishes, in press. [Link]

88. Woolway, R. I., C. Albergel, T. L. Frölicher, M. Perroud, Severe lake heatwaves attributable to humand-induced global warming. Geophysical Research Letters, 49, e2021GL097031. [Link]

87. Bouwer, L. M., S.-M. Cheong, H. Jacot des Combes, T. L. Frölicher, K. L. McInnes, B. M. W. Ratter, E. Rivera-Arriaga, Risk management and adaptation for extremes and abrupt change in climate and oceans: Current knowledge gaps. Frontiers in Climate, 3:785641. [Link]

86. Palacios-Abrantes, J., T. L. Frölicher, G. Reygondeau, U. R. Somalia, A. Tagliabue, C. C. C. Wabnitz, W. W. L. Cheung, Timing and magnitude of climate driven range shifts in transboundary fish stocks challenge their management. Global Change Biology. 28, 2312-2326. [Link]

85. Oyinlola, M., G. Reygondeau, C.C.C Wabnitz, T. L. Frölicher, V. W.Y. Lam,  W. W. L. Cheung, Projecting global mariculture and adaptation pathways under climate change. Global Change Biology, 28(4), 1315-1331. [Link

84. Klein, S. G., N. R. Geraldi, A. Anton, S. Schmidt-Roach, M. Ziegler, M. J. Cziesielski, C. Martin, N. Rädecker, T. L. Frölicher, P. J. Mumby, J. M. Pandolfi, D. J. Suggett, C. R. Voolstra, M. Aranda, C. M. Duarte, Projecting coral response to intensifying marine heatwaves under ocean acidification. Global Change Biology, 28, 1753-1765 [Link]


83. Collins, M, K. Ashok, M. Barreiro, R.M. Koll, S. Kang, T. L. Frölicher, G. Wang, R. G. Tedeschi, Editorial: New techniques for improving climate models, predictions, and projections. Front. Clim. 3:811205. [Link]

82. Somalia, U. R., D. Skerrit, A. Schauer, S. Villasante, A. M. Cisneros-Montemayor, H. Sinan, D. Burnside, T. L. Frölicher, et al., World Trade Organization members must prohibit harmful fisheries subsidies. Science, 374, 544 [Link].

81. Gruber, N., P. Boyd, T. L. Frölicher, M. Vogt, Ocean biogeochemical extremes and compound events in the ocean. Nature, 600, 395-407. [read-only pdf]

80. Cheung, W. W. L., T. L. Frölicher, V. W. Y. Lam, M. Oyinlola, G. Reygondeau, U. R. Sumalia, T. Tai, L. Teh, C. Wabnitz, Marine high temperature extremes amplify the impacts of climate change on fish and fisheries. Science Advances, 7, eabh0895. [Link]

79. Tigchelaar, M., W. W. L. Cheung, E. Y. Mohammed, M. Phillips, H. J. Payne, E. R. Selig, C. C. C. Wabnitz, M. Oyinlola, T. L. Frölicher, J. A. Gephart, C. D. Golden, E. H. Allison, A. Bennett, L. Cao, J. Fanzo, B. S. Halpern, V. W. Y. Lam, F. Micheli, R. L. Naylor, U. R. Somalia, A. Tagliabue, M. Troell, Compound climate risk threatens aquatic food system benefits. Nature Food, 2, 673-682. [Link]

78. Ziegler, M., A. Anton, S. Klein, N. Rädecker, N. Geraldi, S. Schmidt-Roach, V. Saderne, P. Mumby, M. Cziesielski, C. Martin, T. L. Frölicher, J. Pandolfi, D. Sugget, M. Aranda, C. Duarte, C. Voolstra. Integrating environmental variability to broaden the research on coral response to future conditions. Global Change Biology, 27, 5532-5546. [Link]

77. Clarke, T., C. Wabnitz, S. Striegel, T. L. Frölicher, G. Reygondeau, W. W. L. Cheung. Aerobic growth index (AGI): An index to understand the impacts of ocean warming and deoxygenation on global marine fisheries. Progress in Oceanography, 195, 102588. [Link]

76. Terhaar, J., T. L. Frölicher, F. Joos, Southern Ocean anthropogenic carbon sink constrained by sea surface salinity. Science Advances, 7, 18, eabd5964. [Link]

75. Gloege, L., G. A. McKinley, P. Landschützer, A. R. Fay, T. L. Frölicher, J. C. Fife, T. Ilyina, S. jones, N. S. Lovenduski, K. B. Rodgers, S. Schlunegger, Y. Takano. Quantifying errors in observationally-based estimates of ocean carbon sink variability. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 35, e2020GB006788. [Link]

74. Le Grix, N., J. Zscheischler, C. Laufkötter, C. S. Rousseaux, T. L. Frölicher, Compound high temperature and low chlorophyll extremes in the ocean over the satellite period. Biogeosciences, 18, 2119-2137 [Link]

73. Moore, C., J. Moore, B. Morrison, M. Kolian, E. Horsch, T. L. Frölicher, M. L. Pinsky, R. Griffis, Estimating the economic impacts of climate change on 16 major U.S. Fisheries. Climate Change Economics, 12, 2150002 [Link]


72. Matthews, H. D., K. Tokarska, Z. R. J. Nicholls, J. Rogelj, J. P. Canadell, P. Friedlingstein, T. L. Frölicher, P. M. Forster, N. P. Gillett, T. Ilyina, R. B. Jackson, C. D. Jones, C. Koven, R. Knutti, A. H. MacDougall, M. Meinshausen, N. Mengis, R. Séférian, K. Zickfeld. Opportunities and challenges in using carbon budgets to guide climate policy. Nature Geosciences, 13, 769-779. [Link]

71. Pinsky, M. L., L. A. Rogers, J. W. Morley, T. L. Frölicher. Ocean planning for species on the move provides substantial benefits and requires few tradeoffs. Science Advances. 6, eabb8428


70. Rodgers, K. B., S. Schlunegger, R. D. Slater, M. Ishii, T. L. Frölicher, K. Toyama, Y. Plancherel, O. Aumont, A. J. Fassbender, Re-emergence of anthropogenic carbon into the ocean's mixed layer strongly amplifies transient climate sensitivity. Geophysical Research Letters, 47, e2020GL089275. [Link]

69. Collins, M., M. Barreiro, T. L. Frölicher, S. Kang, A. Karumuri, R. M. Koll, D. Singh, R. Goncalves Tedeschi, G. Wang, L. Wilcox, B. Wu. Frontiers in climate predictions and projections. Frontiers in Climate, 2: 571245. [Link]

68. Burger, F. A., J. John, T. L. FrölicherIncrease in ocean acidity variability and extremes under increasing atmospheric CO2. Biogeosciences, 17, 4633-4662. [Link]

67. Frölicher, T. L., M. T. Aschwanden, N. Gruber, S. L. Jaccard, J. Dunne, D. Paynter, Contrasting upper and deep ocean oxygen response to protracted global warming. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 34, e2020GB006601. [Link] (chosen as AGU highlight)

66. Fernandes, J., T. L. Frölicher, L. A. Rutterford, M. Erauskin, W. W. L. Cheung. Changes of potential catches for North-East Atlantic small pelagic fisheries under climate change scenarios. Regional Environmental Change, 20, 116. [Link]

65. Laufkötter, C., J. Zscheischler, T. L. FrölicherHigh-impact marine heatwaves attributable to human-induced global warming. Science, 369, 1621-1625 [Link] Featured in Nature [Link]

64. Reygondeau, G., W. W. L. Cheung, C. Wabnitz, V. Lam, T. L. Frölicher, O. Maury, Climate change-induced emergence of novel ocean biogeographic states. Frontiers in Marine Science. 7, 657. [Link]

63. Schlunegger, S., K. B. Rodgers, J. Sarmiento, T. Ilyina, J. P. Dunne, Y. Takano, J. Christian, M. Long, T. L. Frölicher, R. Slater, F. Lehner, Time of emergence and large ensemble intercomparison for ocean biogeochemical trends. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 34, e2019GB006453 [Link]

62. Rodgers, K., M. Ishii, T. L. Frölicher, S. Schlunegger, O. Aumont, K. Toyama, R. Slater. Coupling of surface ocean heat and carbon perturbations over the subtropical cells under 21st century climate change. J. Climate, 33(23), 10321-10338. [Link]

61. Morley, J., T. L. Frölicher, M. Pinsky, Characterizing uncertainty in climate impact projections: a case study with seven marine species on the North American continental shelf. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 77, 2118-2133. [Link]

60. MacDougall, A. H., T. L. Frölicher, C. D. Jones, J. Roegelj, H. D. Matthews, K. Zickfeld, V. K. Arora, N. J. Barrett, V. Brovkin, F. A. Burger, M. Eby, A. V. Elivseev, T. Hajima, P. B. Holden, A. Jeltsch-Thömmes, C. Koven, L. Menviel, M. Michou, I. I. Mokhov, A. Oka, J. Schwinger, R. Séférian, G. Shaffer, A. Sokolov, K. Tachiiri, J. Tjiputra, A. Wilthsire, T. Ziehn. Is there warming in the pipeline? A multi-model analysis of the Zero Emissions commitment from CO2. Biogeosciences. 17, 2987-3016. [Link]

59. Lam, V. W. Y., E. H. Allison, J. D. Bell, J. Blythe, W. W. L. Cheung, T. L. Frölicher, M. A. Gasalla, U. Rashid Sumalia, Climate change, tropical fisheries and the prospect for sustainable development. Nature Reviews Earth & Environment, 1, 440-454. [Link] [open-access pdf]

58. Cheung, W. W. L., T. L. Frölicher, Marine heatwaves exacerbate climate change impacts for fisheries in the northeast Pacific. Scientific Reports, 10, 6678. [Link]

57. Frölicher, T. L., L. Ramseyer, C. C. Raible, K. B. Rodgers, J. P. Dunne, Potential predictability of marine ecosystem drivers. Biogeosciences, 17, 2061-2083. [Link]

56. Fernandes, J., L. Rutherford, S. Simpson, M. Butenschön, T. L. Frölicher, A. Cool, W. W. Cheung, A. Grant, Can we project changes in fish abundance and distribution in response to climate? Global Change Biology, 26:3891-3905 [Link].

55. Hameau, A., T. L. Frölicher, J. Mignot, F. Joos, Is deoxygenation detectable before warming in the thermocline? Biogeosciences, 17, 1877-1895. [Link]

54. Albouy, C., V. Delattre, G. Donati, T. L. Frölicher, S. Albouy-Boyer, M. Rufino, L. Pellissier, D. Mouillot, F. Leprieur, Global vulnerability of marine mammals to global warming. Scientific Reports, 10, 548. [Link]

53. Rugenstein, M., J. Bloch-Johnson, J. Gregory, T. Andrews, T. Mauritsen, C. Li, T. L. Frölicher, D. Paynter, G. Danabasoglu, S. Yang, J. L. Dufresne, L. Cao, G. Schmidt, A. Abe-Ouchi, O. Geoffroy, R. Knutti, Equilibrium climate sensitivity estimated by equilibrating climate models. Geophysical Research Letters, 47, e2019GL083898.[pdf]



52. Frölicher, T. L., Extreme climatic events in the ocean. In: Predicting future oceans, edited by A. M. Cisneros-Montemayor, W. W. L.  Cheung, Y. Ota. Elsevier. 53-60. [pdf]

51. Rugenstein, J. Bloch-Johnson, A. Abe-Ouchi, T. Andrews, U. Beyerle, L. Cao, T. Chadha, G. Danabasoglu, J.-L. Dufresne, L. Duan, M.-A. Foujols, T. L. Frölicher, O. Geoffrey, J. Gregory, R. Knutti, C. Li, A. Marzocchi, T. Mauritsen, M. Menary, E. Moyer, L. Nazarenko, D. Paynter, D. Saint-Martin, G. A. Schmidt, A. Yamamoto, S. Yang. LongRunMip - motivation and design for a large collection of millennial-length AO-GCM simulations. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, in press. [pdf]

50. Jones, C., T. L. Frölicher, C. Koven, A. H. MacDougall, H.D.Matthews, K. Zickfeld, J. Rogelj, K. B. Tokarska, N. Gillett, T. Ilyina, M. Meinshausen, R. Mengis, R. Séférian, M. Eby, F. A. Burger, 2019, The zero emission commitment model inter comparison project (ZECMIP) contribution to CMIP6: Quantifying committed climate changes following zero carbon emission. Geosci. Model Dev. 12, 4375-4385[Link].

49. Gottschalk, J., G. Battaglia, H. Fischer, T. L. Frölicher, S. Jaccard, A. Jeltsch-Thömmes, F. Joos, P. Köhler, K. Meissner, L. Menviel, C. Nehrbass-Ahles, J. Schmitt, A. Schmittner, L.C.Skinner, T. F. Stocker, Mechanisms of millennial-scale atmospheric CO2 changes in numerical model simulations. Quaternary Science Reviews, 220, 30-74 [Link].

48. Schlunegger, S., K. B. Rodgers, J. L. Sarmiento, T. L. Frölicher, J. P. Dunne, M. Ishii, R. Slater, Emergence of anthropogenic signals in the ocean carbon cycle. Nature Climate Change, 9, 719-725. [Link]. 

47. Frölicher, T. L., Hitzewellen im Ozean - Die unterschätzte Gefahr. Phys. Unserer Zeit, 50: 64-70. [Link]. 


46. T. L. Frölicher, E. M. Fischer, N. Gruber, Marine heatwaves under global warming. Nature, 560, 360-364 [epdf].

45. Cheung, W. W. L., M. Jones, G. Reygondeau, T. L. Frölicher, Opportunities for climate-risk reduction through effective fisheries management. Global Change Biology, 24, 5149-5163. [Link]

44.. T. L. Frölicher, C. Laufkötter, Emerging risks from marine heat waves. Nature Communications. 9, 650. [Link]

43. Palter, J., T. L. Frölicher, D. Paynter, J. John, Climate, ocean circulation, and sea level changes under stabilization and overshoot pathways to 1.5K warming. Earth System Dynamics, 9, 817-828. [PDF]

42. Morley, J. W.R., R. Selden, R. Latour, T. L. Frölicher, R. Seagraves, M. Pinsky, Projecting shifts in thermal habitat for 686 species on the North American continental shelf. PLOS ONE, 13(5), e0196127. [Link]

41. Franco, A., N. Gruber, T. L. Frölicher, L. Kropuenske Artman, Contrasting impact of future CO2 emission scenarios on the extent of CaCO3 mineral undersaturation in the Humboldt Current System. J. Geophys. Res. Ocean, 123, 2018-2036 [PDF]

40. Paynter, D., T. L. Frölicher, L. W. Horrowitz, L. G. Silvers, Equilibrium climate sensitivity obtained from multi-millennial runs of two GFDL climate models. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 123. 1921-1941. [PDF]


39. Williams, R. G., V. Roussenov, T. L. Frölicher, P. Goodwin, Divers of continued surface warming after cessation of carbon emissions. Geophysical Research Letters, 44, 10633-10642 [PDF][SI][Data]

38. von Känel, L., T. L. Frölicher, N. Gruber, Hiatus-like decades in the absence of equatorial Pacific cooling and accelerated global ocean heat uptake. Geophysical Research Letters, 44, 7909-7918, doi:10.1002/2017GL073578. [PDF]. Supplementary Information [PDF].



37. W. W. L. Cheung, G. Reygondeau, T. L. Frölicher, Large benefits to marine fisheries of meeting the 1.5 °C global warming target. Science. 354, 1591-1594 [Link]. Press release ETH Zürich [Link]. Press release UBC [Link].

36. Frölicher, T. L., K. B. Rodgers, C. Stock, W. W. L. Cheung, Sources of uncertainties in 21st century projections of potential ocean ecosystem stressors. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 30, 1224-1243. [PDF]. Supplementary Material [PDF].

35. Frölicher, T. L., 2016, Strong warming at high emissions. Nature Climate Change, 6, 823-824. [PDF].

34.  Carter, B. R., T. L. Frölicher, J. P. Dunne, K. B. Rodgers, R. D. Slater, J. L. Sarmiento, 2016, When can ocean acidification impacts be detected from decadal alkalinity measurements? Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 30, 595-612. [PDF]

33. Raible, C. C., S. Brönnimann, R. Auchmann, P. Brohan, T. L. Frölicher, H.-F. Graf, P. Jones, J. Luterbacher, S. Muthers, R. Neukom, A. Robock, S. Self, A. Sudrajat, C. Timmreck, M. Wegmann, 2016, Tambora 1815 as a test case for high impact volcanic eruptions: Earth system effects. WIREs Clim. Change. doi:10.1002/wcc407. [PDF]

32. Lehner, F., A. P. Schurer, G. C. Hegerl, C. Deser, T. L. Frölicher, 2016, The importance of ENSO phase during volcanic eruptions for detection and attribution. Geophys. Res. Lett. 43, 2851-2858.[PDF]. Suppl. Information [PDF]

31. Cheung, W. W. L., M. C. Jones, G. Reygondeau, C. A. Stock, V. W. Y. Lam, T. L. Frölicher, 2016, Structural uncertainty in projecting global fisheries catches under climate change. Ecological Modelling, 325, 57-66. [PDF]. Suppl. Information [PDF]

30. Cheung, W. W. L., T. L. Frölicher, R. G. Asch, M. Jones, M. L. Pinsky, K. R. Rodgers, R. R. Rykaczewski, J. L. Sarmiento, C. Stock, J. R. Watson, 2016, Building confidence in projections of the responses of living marine resources to climate change. ICES J. Mar. Sci. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsv250. [PDF]



29. Frölicher T. L., D. J. Paynter, 2015, Extending the relationship between global warming and cumulative carbon emissions to multi-millennial timescales. Environmental Research Letters, 10, 075002. [PDF]. ArsTechnica Article [Link].

28. Frölicher, T. L., J. L. Sarmiento, D. J. Paynter, J. P. Dunne, J. P. Krasting, M. Winton, 2015, Dominance of the Southern Ocean in anthropogenic carbon and heat uptake in CMIP5 models. J. Climate, 28, 862-886. [PDF] (chosen for Nature Climate Change research highlights [Link])

27. Panyter, D. J., T. L. Frölicher, 2015, Sensitivity of radiative forcing, ocean heat uptake and climate feedback to changes in anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 120, 9837-9854 [PDF].

26. Rodgers, K. B., J. Lin, T. L. Frölicher, 2015, Emergence of multiple ocean ecosystem drivers in a large ensemble suite with an Earth System Model, Biogeosciences, 12, 3301-3320 [PDF]. (featured as one of the highlighted article from all EGU's open access journals).

25. Morrison, A. K., T. L. Frölicher, J. L. Sarmiento, 2015, Thermal forces in the Southern Ocean upwelling, Physics Today, 68(8) 11. [Link]

24. Morrison, A. K., T. L. Frölicher, J. L. Sarmiento, 2015, Upwelling in the Southern Ocean, Physics Today, 68(1), 27-32. [PDF] [Link]

23. Christensen, V., M. Coll, J. Buszowski, W. Cheung, T. L. Frölicher, J. Steenbeek, C. Stock, R. Watson, C. J. Walters, The global ocean is an ecosystem: Simulating marine life and fisheries. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 4, 507-517 [PDF]


22. Frölicher, T. L., M. Winton, J. L. Sarmiento, 2014, Continued global warming after CO2 emissions stoppage. Nature Climate Change, 4, 40-44. [PDF], Suppl.Information [PDF]. Press release ETH Zürich [Link]. Press release Princeton University [Link].

21. Raupach, M. R., M. Gloor, J. L. Sarmiento, J. G. Canadell, T. L. Frölicher, T. Gasser, R. A. Houghton, C. Le Quéré, C. M. Trudinger, The declining uptake rate of atmospheric CO2 by land and ocean sinks. Biogeosciences. 11, 3453-3475. [PDF]

20. Majkut, J. D., B. R. Carter, T. L. Frölicher, C. O. Dufour, K. B. Rodgers, J. L. Sarmiento, An observing system simulation for Southern Ocean carbon dioxide uptake. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A., 372: 20130046. [PDF]

19. Jaccard, S. L, E. D. Galbraith, T. L. Frölicher, N. Gruber, Ocean (de)oxygenation across the last deglaciation - Insights for the future. Oceanography, 27(1), 26-35. [PDF]



18. Frölicher, T. L., F. Joos, C. C. Raible, J. L. Sarmiento, 2013, Atmospheric CO2 response to volcanic eruptions: The role of ENSO, season, and variability. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 27, 239-251, [PDF]

17. Fernandes, J., W. W. Cheung, S. Jennings, M. Butenschoen, L. de Mora, T. L. Frölicher, M. Barange, A. Grant, Modeling the effects of climate change on the distribution and production of marine fishes: accounting for trophic interactions in a dynamic bioclimate envelope model. Global Change Biology, 19, 2596-2607 [PDF].

16. Cocco, V., F. Joos, M. Steinacher, T. L. Frölicher, L. Bopp, J. Dunne, M. Gehlen, C. Heinze, J. Orr, A. Oschlies, B. Schneider, J. Segschneider, J. Tjiputra., 2013, Oxygen and indicators of stress for marine life in multi-model global warming projections. Biogeosciences, 10, 1849-1868 [PDF]

15. Joos, F., R. Roth, J. S. Fuglestvedt, G. P. Peters, I. G. Enting, W. von Bloh, V. Brovkin, E. J. Burke, M. Eby, N. R. Edwards, T. Friedrich, T. L. Frölicher, P. R. Halloran, P. B. Holden, C. Jones, T. Kleinen, F. Mackenzie, K. Matsumoto, M. Meinshausen, G.-K. Plattner, A. Reisinger, J. Segschneider, G. Shaffer, M. Steinacher, K. Strassmann, K. Tanaka, A. Timmermann, A. J. Weaver, 2013, Carbon dioxide and climate impulse response functions for the computation of greenhouse gas metrics: A multi-model analysis. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2793-2825 [PDF], Suppl. Information [PDF]

14. Jones, M. C., S. R. Dye, J. A. Fernandes, T. L. Frölicher, J. K. Pinnegar, R. Warren, W. W. L. Cheung, 2013, Predicting the impact of climate change on threatened species in UK waters. PLoS ONE, 8(1) [PDF].

13. Cheung, W. W. L., J. L. Sarmiento, J. Dunne, T. L. Frölicher, V. Lam, M. L. Deng Palomares, R. Watson, D. Pauly, 2013, Shrinking of fishes exacerbates impacts of global ocean changes on marine ecosystems. Nature Climate Change, 3, 254-258 [PDF], Suppl. Information [PDF].

12. Winton, M, S. M. Griffies, B. Samuels, J. L. Sarmiento, T. L. Frölicher, 2013, Connecting changing ocean circulation with changing climate. J. Climate, 26, 2268-2278 [PDF] (chosen for Nature Climate Change Research Highlights [PDF])



11. Keller, K. M., F. Joos, C. C. Raible, V. Cocco, T. L. Frölicher, J. P. Dunne, M. Gehlen, T. Roy, L. Bopp, J. C. Orr, J. Tjiputra, C. Heinze, J. Segschneider, N. Metzl. 2012, Variability of the Ocean Carbon Cycle in Response to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Tellus B, 64, 18738 [PDF]

10. Gruber, N., C. Hauri, Z. Lachkar, D. Loher, T. L. Frölicher, G.-K. Plattner, 2012, Rapid progression of ocean acidification in the California Current System. Science, 337(6091), 220-223, doi: 10.1126/science.1216773 [PDF], Suppl. Information [PDF], Related NewsFocus [PDF]



9. Frölicher, T. L., F. Joos, C. C. Raible, 2011, Sensitivity of atmospheric CO2 and climate to explosive volcanic eruptions. Biogeosciences. 8, 2317-2339, doi: 10.5194/bg-8-2317-2011. [PDF]

8. Joos, F., T. L. Frölicher, M. Steinacher, G.-K. Plattner, 2011, Impact of climate change mitigation on ocean acidification projections, in Ocean Acidification, edited by J.-P. Gattuso and L. Hansson, Cambridge Univ. Press. [PDF]

7. Roy, T., L. Bopp, M. Gehlen, B. Schneider, P. Cadule, T. L. Frölicher, J. Segschneider, J. Tjiputra, C. Heinze, F. Joos, 2011, Regional impacts of climate change and atmospheric CO2 on future ocean carbon uptake: A multi-model linear feedback analysis. J. of Climate, 24, 2300-2318 [PDF]



6. Frölicher, T. L., F. Joos, 2010, Reversible and irreversible impacts of greenhouse gas emissions in multi-century projections with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Climate Dyn. 35, 7-8, 1439-1459. [PDF]

5. Steinacher, M., F. Joos, T. L. Frölicher, L. Bopp, P. Cadule, S.C. Doney, M. Gehlen, B. Schneider, J. Segschneider, 2010, Projected 21st century decrease in marine productivity: a multi-model analysis. Biogeosciences. 7, 979-1005. [PDF] (chosen for Nature Research Highlights HTML)



4. Frölicher, T. L. , F. Joos, G.-K. Plattner, M. Steinacher, S. C. Doney, 2009, Natural variability and anthropogenic trends in oceanic oxygen in a coupled carbon cycle-climate model ensemble. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 23, GB1003 [PDF].

3. Gattuso, J.-P., L. Hansson, J. Bijma, H. Elderfield, P. Burkill, T. Tyrrell, M. Edwards, S. Widdicombe, U. Riebesell, M. Steinacher, F. Joos, T. L. Frölicher, C. Turley, K. Boot, K.-M. Davidson, D. Laffoley, P. Saugier, 2009, European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA): objectives, products and scientific highlights. Oceanography 22/4, 190-201. [PDF]

2. Steinacher, M., F. Joos, T. L. Frölicher, G.-K. Plattner, S. C. Doney, 2009, Imminent ocean acidification projected with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Biogeosciences 6, 515-533. [PDF]



1. Schneider, B., L. Bopp, M. Gehlen, J. Segschneider, T. L. Frölicher, P. Cadule, P. Friedlingstein, S.C. Doney, M. J. Behrenfeld, F. Joos, 2008, Climate-induced interannual variability of marine primary and export production in three global coupled climate carbon cycle models. Biogeosciences5/2, 597-614. [PDF]


International Assessments (IPCC & WOA)

9. Contributing Author: Cooley, S., D. Schoeman, L. Bopp, P. Boyd, S. Donner, D. Y. Ghebrehiwet, S.-I. Ito, W. Kiessling, P. Martinetto, E. Ojea, M.-F. Racault, B. Rost, and M. Skern-Mauritzen, 2022: Ocean and Coastal Ecosystems and their services. In: Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [H.-O. Pörtner, D. C. Roberts, M. Tignor, E. S. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegria, M. Graig, S. Langsdorf, S. Löschke, V. Möller, A. Okem, B. Ramara (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press. In press. [Link]

8. Contributing Author: Fox-Kemper, B., H. T. Hewitt, C. Xiao, G. Adalgeirsdottir, S. S. Drijfhout, T. L. Edwards, N. R. Golledge, M. Hemer, R. E. Kopp, G. Krinner, A. Mix, D. notz, S. Nowicki, I. S. Nurhati, L. Ruiz, J.-B. Sallée, A. B. A. Slangen, and Y. Yu, 2021: Ocean, Cryosphere and Sea Level Change. In: Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Masson-Delmotte, V., P. Zhai, A. Pirani, S. L. Connors, C. Péan, S. Berger, N. Caud, Y. Chen, L. Goldfarb, M. I. Gomis, M. Huang, K. Leitzell, E. Lonnoy, J. B. R. Matthews, T. K. Maycock, T. Waterfield, O. Yelekci, R. Yu, and B. Zhou (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press. In press. [Link]

7. Drafting Author: Garcia-Soto, C., D. Breitburg, M. Campillos, P. Castillo-Briceno, M. Collings, G. Esnaola, K. Evan, L. B. Firth, T. L. Frölicher, J. M. Hall-Spencer, D. Halpern, K. L. Hunter, G. Ibarra, S.-Y. Kim, R. M. Koll, K. McInnes, J. Saenz, B. Ward, T. Zielinski, 2021: Pressures from Changes in Climate and Atmosphere. In: Second World Ocean Assessment. In press. [Link]

6. Lead Author: IPCC, 2019: Summary for Policymakers. In: IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate [H.-O. Pörtner, D. C. Roberts, V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, M. Tignor, E. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegria, M. Nicolai, A. Okem, J. Petzold, B. Rama, N. Weyer (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, pp. 3-35. [Link]

5. Lead Author: IPCC, 2019: Technical Summary. In: IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate [H.-O. Pörtner, D. C. Roberts, V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, M. Tignor, E. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegria, M. Nicolai, A. Okem, J. Petzold, B. Rama, N. Weyer (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, pp. 39-69. [Link]

4. Contributing Author: Bindiff, N. L., W. W. L. Cheung, J. G. Kairo, J. Aristegui, V. A. Guinder, R. Hallberg, N. Hilmi, N. Jiao, M. S. Karim, L. Levin, S. O'Donoghue, S. R. Purra Cuicapusa, B. Rinkevich, T. Suga, A. Tagliabue, and P. Williamson, 2019: Change Ocean, Marine Ecosystems, and Dependent Communities. In: PCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate [H.-O. Pörtner, D. C. Roberts, V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, M. Tignor, E. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegria, M. Nicolai, A. Okem, J. Petzold, B. Rama, N. Weyer (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, pp. 447-587. [Link]

3. Lead Author: Collins, M., M. Sutherland, L. Bouwer, S.-M. Cheung, T. L. Frölicher, H. Jacot Des Combes, M. Koll Roxy, I. Losada, K. McInnes, B. Ratter, E. Rivera-Arriaga, R. D. Susanto, D. Swingedouw, L. Tibig, 2019: Extremes, Abrupt Changes and Managing risks. In: IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate [H.-O. Pörtner, D. C. Roberts, V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, M. Tignor, E. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegria, M. Nicolai, A. Okem, J. Petzold, B. Rama, N. Weyer (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, pp. 589-655 [Link]

2. Lead Author: IPCC, 2019: Annex I: Glossary [Weyer, N. M., (ed.)]. In: IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate [H.-O. Pörtner, D. C. Roberts, V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, M. Tignor, E. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegria, M. Nicolai, A. Okem, J. Petzold, B. Rama, N. Weyer (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, pp. 677-702 [Link]

1. Contributing author: Pörtner, H.-O., D. Karl, P.W. Boyd, W. Cheung, S.E. Lluch-Cota, Y. Nojiro, D. Schmidt, P. Zavialov, 2014: Ocean systems. In: Field C. et al. (Eds.), Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaption and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  (



Frölicher, T. L., 2009, Ensemble modeling of the coupled carbon cycle-climate system. PhD thesis, 180pp., Climate and Environmental Physics, University of Bern.

Frölicher, T. L., 2004, Niederschlagsvalidierung über dem Alpenraum. Diploma thesis, 91 pp., Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zürich.

Frölicher, T. L., 2004, Nachhaltigkeitsrating für Städte, Semester thesis, ETH Zürich.

Frölicher, T. L., 2003, Verlieren Globalisierungsbefürworter das Ziel der Armutsbekämpfung aus den Augen? Semester thesis, ETH Zürich.


Publications without peer-review

16. Blattner, C. C. Beisbart, V. Boillet, A. Fischlin, T. Frölicher, M. Grosjean, C. Heri, F. Joos, H. Keller, J. Künzli, C. Raible, E. Schmid, S. Seneviratne, T. Stocker, A. Vicedo-Cabrera, R. Winkler, J. Wyttenbach, 2024, Ein Urteil geht um die Welt. Republik. [Link]

15. Kaczan, D., F. Nurhabni, W. W. L. Cheung, T. L. Frölicher, A. Kuswardani, V. Lam, U. Muawana, R. Puspasari, G. Reygondeau, U. Sumaila, L. Teh, 2023, Hot water rising: The impact of climate change on Indonesia's fisheries and coastal communities. Washington, DC: World Bank. [pdf]

14. Frölicher, T. L., S. Jaccard, 2023, The state of knowledge on the environmental impacts of deep-sea mining [Link]

13. Blattner, C., A. Vicedo-Cabrera, T. L. Frölicher et al., 2022, Third party intervention on the KlimaSeniorInnen case for the European Court of Human Rights [Link]

12. Guisan, A., C. Huggel, S. I. Seneviratne, J. Steinberger, T. L. Frölicher et al., 2022, Trendwende Klima und Biodiversität: Parlament trifft Wissenschaft. Swiss Academies Communications 17 (6). [Link]

11. Gruber, N., P. Boyd, T. L. Frölicher, M. Vogt, 2022, Guest Post: Why oceans could face more extremes like the Pacific 'Blob'. CarbonBrief [Link]

10. Wernberg, T., D. A. Smale, T. L. Frölicher, D. J. P. Smith, 2021, ScienceBrief Review: Climate increase marine heatwaves harming marine ecosystems. In: Critical Issues in Climate Change Science, edited by: P. Liss, C. Le Quéré, P. Forster.

9. Frölicher, T. L., 2019, Kalte Winter und global Erwärmung - ein Widerspruch?. Physik unserer Zeit, 50, 263-263. [PDF]

8. Frölicher, T. L, S. Striegel, E. Fischer, N. Gruber, C. Laufkötter, 2019, The evolution of marine heatwaves under global warming. BAMS, 100,3, 315-316 [PDF].

7. Frölicher, T. L, 2016, Heatwaves in the ocean - a risk to ecosystems? ETH Zukunftsblog. English, German

6. Dufour, C. O., I. Frenger, T. L. Frölicher, A. R. Gray, S. M. Griffies, A. K. Morrison, J. L. Sarmiento, S. A. Schlunegger, 2015, Anthropogenic carbon and heat uptake by the ocean: Will the Southern Ocean remain a major sink? US Clivar Variations, 13, 4. [PDF]

5. Dunne, J. P., C. Laufkötter, T. L. Frölicher, 2015, Ocean biogeochemistry in the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). US Clivar Variations, 13, 2. [PDF]

4. Gruber, N,  D. Clement, T. L. Frölicher, A. Haumann, P. Landschützer, 2015, The global ocean carbon sink: Recent trends and variability. Nova Acta Leopoldina NF 121, 408, 85-88. [PDF]

3. Gruber, N,  T. L. Frölicher, F. Joos, S. Jaccard, 2015, Das polare Fenster im Mittelpunkt des Interesses. In: Schweizer Polarforschung: Pioniergeist, Leidenschaft und Spitzenleistungen.


2. Steinacher, M., T. L. Frölicher, F. Joos, 2009, Imminent and irreversible ocean acidification, SOLAS Newsletter 9, 6-7 [PDF].

1. Frölicher, T. L., C. Häberli, 2005, DAQUAMAP redo. Mesoscale Alpine Programme Newsletter 20.